LOPINAVIR and RITONAVIR are antiviral medications that prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cells from multiplying in your body.Lopinavir and ritonavir (Kaletra) is a combination medicine used to treat HIV, which causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This medicine is not a cure for HIV or AIDS.Kaletra may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
Serious drug interactions can occur when certain medicines are used together with lopinavir and ritonavir. Tell each of your healthcare providers about all medicines you use now, and any medicine you start or stop using.
Some medicines can cause unwanted or dangerous effects when used with Kaletra. Your doctor may need to change your treatment plan if you use any of the following drugs:
sildenafil (Revatio for pulmonary arterial hypertension);
St. John's wort; or
an ergot medicine (ergotamine, dihydroergotamine, methylergonovine).
To make sure Kaletra is safe for you, tell your doctor if you have:
liver disease (especially hepatitis B or C);
heart disease or a heart rhythm disorder;
a personal or family history of Long QT Syndrome;
low levels of potassium in your blood;
a bleeding disorder such as hemophilia;
high cholesterol or triglycerides; or
if you have ever used a protease inhibitor in the past.
It is not known whether this medicine will harm an unborn baby. But HIV can be passed to your baby if you are not properly treated during pregnancy. Take all of your HIV medicines as directed to control your infection.
If you are pregnant, your name may be listed on a pregnancy registry. This is to track the outcome of the pregnancy and to evaluate any effects of Kaletra on the baby.
Kaletra can make birth control pills or patches less effective. Ask your doctor about using a non-hormone method of birth control (such as a condom, diaphragm, spermicide) to prevent pregnancy while taking Kaletra.
Women with HIV or AIDS should not breast-feed a baby. Even if your baby is born without HIV, the virus may be passed to the baby in your breast milk.
Kaletra is not approved for use by anyone younger than 14 days old. Premature infants should not receive the medication until it has been 14 days after their original due date.
Follow all directions on your prescription label, especially when giving the medicine to a child. Do not take this medicine in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended.
If a child is taking this medication, tell your doctor if the child has any changes in weight. Kaletra doses are based on weight in children.
Do not crush, chew, or break a Kaletra tablet. Swallow the pill whole.
Kaletra tablets can be taken with or without food.
While using Kaletra, you may need frequent blood tests at your doctor's office.
HIV/AIDS is usually treated with a combination of drugs. Use all medications as directed by your doctor. Read the medication guide or patient instructions provided with each medication. Do not change your doses or medication schedule without your doctor's advice. Every person with HIV or AIDS should remain under the care of a doctor.
Many drugs can interact with Kaletra. Not all possible interactions are listed here. Tell your doctor about all your current medicines and any you start or stop using, especially:
antiviral medicines to treat hepatitis C or HIV;
medicine to prevent organ transplant rejection;
"statin" cholesterol-lowering medicine;
an antibiotic--bedaquiline, clarithromycin, metronidazole, rifabutin;
antifungal medicine--itraconazole, ketoconazole, voriconazole;
heart or blood pressure medicine--amiodarone, felodipine, lidocaine, nicardipine, nifedipine, quinidine;
medicine to prevent blood clots--rivaroxaban, warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven);
medicine to treat impotence or pulmonary arterial hypertension--avanafil (Stendra), sildenafil (Viagra, Revatio), tadalafil (Adcirca, Cialis), or vardenafil (Levitra, Staxyn);
medicine to treat severe depression or schizophrenia--bupropion (Wellbutrin, Zyban), quetiapine, trazodone;
narcotic medicine--fentanyl, methadone;
seizure medicine--carbamazepine, divalproex sodium, lamotrigine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, valproate, valproic acid; or
steroid medicine--budesonide, dexamethasone, prednisone, fluticasone.
This list is not complete and many other drugs can interact with Kaletra. This includes prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Give a list of all your medicines to any healthcare provider who treats you.
Taking this medication will not prevent you from passing HIV to other people. Do not have unprotected sex or share razors or toothbrushes. Talk with your doctor about safe ways to prevent HIV transmission during sex. Sharing drug or medicine needles is never safe, even for a healthy person.
Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Stop taking Kaletra and call your doctor at once if you have:
headache with chest pain and severe dizziness, fainting, fast or pounding heartbeats;
severe pain in your upper stomach spreading to your back, nausea and vomiting;
itching, loss of appetite, dark urine, clay-colored stools, jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes);
high blood sugar (increased thirst, increased urination);
penis erection that is painful or lasts 4 hours or longer (if you take Kaletra with erectile dysfunction medication);
muscle weakness, tired feeling, joint or muscle pain, feeling short of breath; or
severe skin reaction--fever, sore throat, swelling in your face or tongue, burning in your eyes, skin pain followed by a red or purple skin rash that spreads (especially in the face or upper body) and causes blistering and peeling.
Kaletra may increase your risk of certain infections or autoimmune disorders by changing the way your immune system works. Symptoms may occur weeks or months after you start treatment with Kaletra. Tell your doctor if you have:
signs of a new infection--fever, night sweats, swollen glands, mouth sores, diarrhea, stomach pain, weight loss;
chest pain (especially when you breathe), dry cough, wheezing, feeling short of breath;
cold sores, sores on your genital or anal area;
rapid heart rate, feeling anxious or irritable, weakness or prickly feeling, problems with balance or eye movement;
trouble speaking or swallowing, severe lower back pain, loss of bladder or bowel control; or
swelling in your neck or throat (enlarged thyroid), menstrual changes, impotence, loss of interest in sex.
Common side effects may include:
nausea, vomiting, diarrhea;
high cholesterol; or
changes in the shape or location of body fat (especially in your arms, legs, face, neck, breasts, and waist).
Store the tablets at room temperature, away from heat and moisture. Keep the pills in their original container with the cap tightly closed.